r Statement (Repeat Statement)

r — Starts a repeated section.


Starts a repeated section, which lasts until the next s, r or e statement.


r p1 p2


p1 -- Number of times to repeat the section.

p2 -- Macro(name) to advance with each repetition (optional).


In order that the sections may be more flexible than simple editing, the macro named p2 is given the value of 1 for the first time through the section, 2 for the second, and 3 for the third. This can be used to change p-field parameters, or ignored.

[Warning] Warning

Because of serious problems of interaction with macro expansion, sections must start and end in the same file, and not in a macro.


Here is an example of the r statement. It uses the file r.csd.

Example 1052. Example of the r statement.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc    ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o r.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform

; Initialize the global variables.
sr = 44100
kr = 4410
ksmps = 10
nchnls = 1

; Instrument #1.
instr 1
  ; The score's p4 parameter has the number of repeats.
  kreps = p4
  ; The score's p5 parameter has our note's frequency.
  kcps = p5
  ; Print the number of repeats.
  printks "Repeated %i time(s).\\n", 1, kreps

  ; Generate a nice beep.
  a1 oscil 20000, kcps, 1
  out a1


; Table #1, a sine wave.
f 1 0 16384 10 1

; We'll repeat this section 6 times. Each time it 
; is repeated, its macro REPS_MACRO is incremented. 

; Play Instrument #1.
; p4 = the r statement's macro, REPS_MACRO.
; p5 = the frequency in cycles per second.
i 1 00.10 00.10 $REPS_MACRO 1760
i 1 00.30 00.10 $REPS_MACRO 880
i 1 00.50 00.10 $REPS_MACRO 440
i 1 00.70 00.10 $REPS_MACRO 220

; Marks the end of the section.




Author: John ffitch
University of Bath/Codemist Ltd.
Bath, UK
April, 1998

New in Csound version 3.48

Example written by Kevin Conder