##
zfilter2

zfilter2 —
Performs filtering using a transposed form-II digital filter lattice with radial pole-shearing and angular pole-warping.

## Description

General purpose custom filter with time-varying pole control. The filter coefficients implement the following difference equation:

(1)*y(n) = b0*x[n] + b1*x[n-1] +...+ bM*x[n-M] - a1*y[n-1] -...- aN*y[n-N]

the system function for which is represented by:

B(Z) b0 + b1*Z^{-1} + ... + bM*Z^{-M}

H(Z) = ---- = --------------------------

A(Z) 1 + a1*Z^{-1} + ... + aN*Z^{-N}

## Syntax

ares **zfilter2** asig, kdamp, kfreq, iM, iN, ib0, ib1, ..., ibM, \
ia1,ia2, ..., iaN

## Initialization

At initialization the number of zeros and poles of the filter are specified along with the corresponding zero and pole coefficients. The coefficients must be obtained by an external filter-design application such as Matlab and specified directly or loaded into a table via *GEN01*. With *zfilter2*, the roots of the characteristic polynomials are solved at initialization so that the pole-control operations can be implemented efficiently.

## Performance

The *filter2* opcodes perform filtering using a transposed form-II digital filter lattice with no time-varying control. *zfilter2* uses the additional operations of radial pole-shearing and angular pole-warping in the Z plane.

Pole shearing increases the magnitude of poles along radial lines in the Z-plane. This has the affect of altering filter ring times. The k-rate variable *kdamp* is the damping parameter. Positive values (0.01 to 0.99) increase the ring-time of the filter (hi-Q), negative values (-0.01 to -0.99) decrease the ring-time of the filter, (lo-Q).

Pole warping changes the frequency of poles by moving them along angular paths in the Z plane. This operation leaves the shape of the magnitude response unchanged but alters the frequencies by a constant factor (preserving 0 and p). The k-rate variable *kfreq* determines the frequency warp factor. Positive values (0.01 to 0.99) increase frequencies toward p and negative values (-0.01 to -0.99) decrease frequencies toward 0.

Since *filter2* implements generalized recursive filters, it can be used to specify a large range of general DSP algorithms. For example, a digital waveguide can be implemented for musical instrument modeling using a pair of *delayr* and *delayw* opcodes in conjunction with the *filter2* opcode.

## Examples

A controllable second-order IIR filter operating on an a-rate signal:

## Credits

Author: Michael A. Casey |

M.I.T. |

Cambridge, Mass. |

1997 |

New in Version 3.47