vcella — Cellular Automata


Unidimensional Cellular Automata applied to Csound vectors


vcella ktrig, kreinit, ioutFunc, initStateFunc, \
      iRuleFunc, ielements, irulelen [, iradius]


ioutFunc - number of the table where the state of each cell is stored

initStateFunc - number of a table containig the inital states of each cell

iRuleFunc - number of a lookup table containing the rules

ielements - total number of cells

irulelen - total number of rules

iradius (optional) - radius of Cellular Automata. At present time CA radius can be 1 or 2 (1 is the default)


ktrig - trigger signal. Each time it is non-zero, a new generation of cells is evaluated

kreinit - trigger signal. Each time it is non-zero, state of all cells is forced to be that of initStateFunc.

vcella supports unidimensional cellular automata, where the state of each cell is stored in ioutFunc. So ioutFunc is a vector containing current state of each cell. This variant vector can be used together with any other vector-based opcode, such as adsynt, vmap, vpowv etc.

initStateFunc is an input vector containing the inital value of the row of cells, while iRuleFunc is an input vector containing the rules in the form of a lookup table. Notice that initStateFunc and iRuleFunc can be updated during the performance by means of other vector-based opcodes (for example vcopy) in order to force to change rules and status at performance time.

A new generation of cells is evaluated each time ktrig contains a non-zero value. Also the status of all cells can be forced to assume the status corresponding to the contents of initStateFunc each time kreinit contains a non-zero value.

Radius of CA algorithm can be 1 or 2 (optional iradius arguement).


Here is an example of the vcella opcode. It uses the file vcella.csd.

The following example uses vcella

Example 950. Example of the vcella opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
; Audio out   Audio in
-odac           -iadc     ;;;RT audio I/O
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o vcella.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
; vcella.csd
; by Anthony Kozar

; This file demonstrates some of the new opcodes available in
; Csound 5 that come from Gabriel Maldonado's CsoundAV.

sr        = 44100
kr        = 4410
ksmps     = 10
nchnls    = 1

; Cellular automata-driven oscillator bank using vcella and adsynt
instr 1
  idur      = p3
  iCArate   = p4                                ; number of times per second the CA calculates new values
  ; f-tables for CA parameters
  iCAinit   = p5                                ; CA initial states					
  iCArule   = p6                                ; CA rule values
  ; The rule is used as follows:
  ; the states (values) of each cell are summed with their neighboring cells within
  ; the specied radius (+/- 1 or 2 cells).  Each sum is used as an index to read a 
  ; value from the rule table which becomes the new state value for its cell.
  ; All new states are calculated first, then the new values are all applied 
  ; simultaneously.

  ielements = ftlen(iCAinit)
  inumrules = ftlen(iCArule)
  iradius   = 1

  ; create some needed tables
  iCAstate  ftgen     0, 0, ielements, -2, 0    ; will hold the current CA states
  ifreqs    ftgen     0, 0, ielements, -2, 0    ; will hold the oscillator frequency for each cell
  iamps     ftgen     0, 0, ielements, -2, 0    ; will hold the amplitude for each cell

  ; calculate cellular automata state
  ktrig     metro     iCArate                   ; trigger the CA to update iCArate times per second
            vcella    ktrig, 0, iCAstate, iCAinit, iCArule, ielements, inumrules, iradius

  ; scale CA state for use as amplitudes of the oscillator bank
            vcopy     iamps, iCAstate, ielements
            vmult     iamps, (1/3), ielements   ; divide by 3 since state values are 0-3

            vport     iamps, .01, ielements     ; need to smooth the amplitude changes for adsynt
  ; we could use adsynt2 instead of adsynt, but it does not seem to be working

  ; i-time loop for calculating frequencies
  index     =         0
  inew      =         1
  iratio    =         1.125                     ; just major second (creating a whole tone scale)
            tableiw   inew, index, ifreqs, 0    ; 0 indicates integer indices
  inew      =         inew * iratio
  index     =         index + 1
  if (index < ielements) igoto loop1

  ; create sound with additive oscillator bank
  ifreqbase = 64
  iwavefn   = 1
  iphs      = 2                                 ; random oscillator phases

  kenv      linseg    0.0, 0.5, 1.0, idur - 1.0, 1.0, 0.5, 0.0
  aosc      adsynt    kenv, ifreqbase, iwavefn, ifreqs, iamps, ielements, iphs

            out       aosc * ampdb(68)

f1 0 16384 10 1

; This example uses a 4-state cellular automata
; Possible state values are 0, 1, 2, and 3

; CA initial state
; We have 16 cells in our CA, so the initial state table is size 16
f10 0 16 -2  0 1 0 0  1 0 0 2  2 0 0 1  0 0 1 0

; CA rule
; The maximum sum with radius 1 (3 cells) is 9, so we need 10 values in the rule (0-9)
f11 0 16 -2  1 0 3 2 1  0 0 2 1 0

; Here is our one and only note!
i1 0  20  4  10  11




Written by: Gabriel Maldonado.

New in Csound 5 (Previously available only on CsoundAV)

Example by: Anthony Kozar