semitone

semitone — Calculates a factor to raise/lower a frequency by a given amount of semitones.

Description

Calculates a factor to raise/lower a frequency by a given amount of semitones.

Syntax

semitone(x)

This function works at a-rate, i-rate, and k-rate.

Initialization

x -- a value expressed in semitones.

Performance

The value returned by the semitone function is a factor. You can multiply a frequency by this factor to raise/lower it by the given amount of semitones.

Examples

Here is an example of the semitone opcode. It uses the file semitone.csd.

Example 768. Example of the semitone opcode.

See the sections Real-time Audio and Command Line Flags for more information on using command line flags.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsOptions>
; Select audio/midi flags here according to platform
-odac      ;;;realtime audio out
;-iadc    ;;;uncomment -iadc if realtime audio input is needed too
; For Non-realtime ouput leave only the line below:
; -o semitone.wav -W ;;; for file output any platform
</CsOptions>
<CsInstruments>

sr = 44100
ksmps = 32
nchnls = 2
0dbfs  = 1

instr 1

iroot = 440		; root note is A above middle-C (440 Hz)
ksem  lfo 12, .5, 5	; generate sawtooth, go from 5 octaves higher to root
ksm = int(ksem)		; produce only whole numbers
kfactor = semitone(ksm)	; for semitones
knew = iroot * kfactor
printk2 knew
printk2 kfactor
asig pluck 1, knew, 1000, 0, 1 
asig dcblock asig	;remove DC
     outs asig, asig

endin
</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>

i 1 0 5
e

</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>


Its output should include lines like:

 i1   880.00000
 i1     2.00000
 i1   830.65625
 i1     1.88786
 i1   783.94665
 i1     1.78170
 i1   739.98885
 i1     1.68179
 i1   698.49586
 i1     1.58749
 i1   659.21793
 i1     1.49822
 i1   622.25397
 i1     1.41421
 i1   587.36267
 i1     1.33492
 i1   554.33399
 i1     1.25985
 i1   523.25113
 i1     1.18921
 i1   493.91116
 i1     1.12253
 i1   466.13747
 i1     1.05940
 i1   440.00000
 i1     1.00000
.......
 

See Also

cent, db, octave

Credits

New in version 4.16