lua_opdef

lua_opdef — Define an opcode in Lua at i-rate. The opcode can take any number of output and/or input arguments of any type.

Description

Define an opcode in Lua at i-rate. The opcode can take any number of output and/or input arguments of any type. The code is executed at initialization time, typically from the orchestra header. Global and local variables, functions, tables, and classes may be declared and defined. Objects defined at global Lua scope remain in scope throughout the performance, and are visible to any other Lua code in the same Csound thread.

[Note] Note

By default, all objects defined in Lua are defined at global scope. In order to ensure that objects are confined to their own block of code, that is to ensure that the object is visible only in lexical scope, the object must be declared as local. This is the feature of Lua that beginners tend to find the most troublesome.

Another thing to look out for is that Lua arrays use 1-based indexing, not the 0-based indexing used in C and many other programming languages.

Syntax

lua_opdef Sname, Sluacode

Initialization

Sname -- The name of the opcode.

Sluacode -- A block of Lua code, of any length. Multi-line blocks may be enclosed in double braces (i.e. {{ }}). This code is evaluated once at initialization time.

The Lua code must define all functions that will be called from Csound, using the following naming convention, where opcodename stands for the actual opcode name:

  • opcodename_init for the i-rate opcode subroutine.
  • opcodename_kontrol for the k-rate opcode subroutine.
  • opcodename_audio for the a-rate opcode subroutine.
  • opcodename_noteoff for the note-off subroutine.

Each of these Lua functions will receive three lightuserdata (i.e. pointer) arguments: the CSOUND object, the opcode instance, and a pointer to the opcode arguments, which the Lua code must be type cast to a LuaJIT FFI ctype structure containing the opcode output arguments, input arguments, and state variables. Using LuaJIT FFI, the elements of this structure will be accessible as though they were Lua types.

Each of these Lua functions must return 0 for success or 1 for failure.

The Lua functions may do absolutely anything, although of course if real-time performance is expected, care must be taken to disable Lua garbage collection and observe other recommendations for real-time code.

Example

Here is an example of a Lua opcode, implementing a Moog ladder filter. For purposes of comparison, a user-defined opcode and the native Csound opcode that compute the same sound using the same algorithm also are shown, and timed. The example uses the file luamoog.csd.

Example 447.  Example of a Lua opcode.

<CsoundSynthesizer>
<CsInstruments>
sr =    48000
ksmps =   100
nchnls =    1

    gibegan     rtclock

    lua_opdef   "moogladder", {{
local ffi = require("ffi")
local math = require("math")
local string = require("string")
local csoundApi = ffi.load('csound64.dll.5.2')
ffi.cdef[[
    int csoundGetKsmps(void *);
    double csoundGetSr(void *);
    struct moogladder_t {
      double *out;
      double *inp;
      double *freq;
      double *res;
      double *istor;
      double sr;
      double ksmps;
      double thermal;
      double f;
      double fc;
      double fc2;
      double fc3;
      double fcr;
      double acr;
      double tune;
      double res4;
      double input;
      double i;
      double j;
      double k;
      double kk;
      double stg[6];
      double delay[6];
      double tanhstg[6];
    };
]]

local moogladder_ct = ffi.typeof('struct moogladder_t *')

function moogladder_init(csound, opcode, carguments)
    local p = ffi.cast(moogladder_ct, carguments)
    p.sr = csoundApi.csoundGetSr(csound)
    p.ksmps = csoundApi.csoundGetKsmps(csound)
    if p.istor[0] == 0 then
        for i = 0, 5 do
            p.delay[i] = 0.0
        end
        for i = 0, 3 do
            p.tanhstg[i] = 0.0
        end
    end
    return 0
end

function moogladder_kontrol(csound, opcode, carguments)
    local p = ffi.cast(moogladder_ct, carguments)
    -- transistor thermal voltage
    p.thermal = 1.0 / 40000.0
    if p.res[0] < 0.0 then
        p.res[0] = 0.0
    end
    -- sr is half the actual filter sampling rate
    p.fc = p.freq[0] / p.sr
    p.f = p.fc / 2.0
    p.fc2 = p.fc * p.fc
    p.fc3 = p.fc2 * p.fc
    -- frequency & amplitude correction
    p.fcr = 1.873 * p.fc3 + 0.4955 * p.fc2 - 0.6490 * p.fc + 0.9988
    p.acr = -3.9364 * p.fc2 + 1.8409 * p.fc + 0.9968
    -- filter tuning
    p.tune = (1.0 - math.exp(-(2.0 * math.pi * p.f * p.fcr))) / p.thermal
    p.res4 = 4.0 * p.res[0] * p.acr
    -- Nested 'for' loops crash, not sure why.
    -- Local loop variables also are problematic.
    -- Lower-level loop constructs don't crash.
    p.i = 0
    while p.i < p.ksmps do
        p.j = 0
        while p.j < 2 do
            p.k = 0
            while p.k < 4 do
                if p.k == 0 then
                    p.input = p.inp[p.i] - p.res4 * p.delay[5]
                    p.stg[p.k] = p.delay[p.k] + p.tune * (math.tanh(p.input * p.thermal) - p.tanhstg[p.k])
                else
                    p.input = p.stg[p.k - 1]
                    p.tanhstg[p.k - 1] = math.tanh(p.input * p.thermal)
                    if p.k < 3 then
                        p.kk = p.tanhstg[p.k]
                    else
                        p.kk = math.tanh(p.delay[p.k] * p.thermal)
                    end
                    p.stg[p.k] = p.delay[p.k] + p.tune * (p.tanhstg[p.k - 1] - p.kk)
                end
                p.delay[p.k] = p.stg[p.k]
                p.k = p.k + 1
            end
            -- 1/2-sample delay for phase compensation
            p.delay[5] = (p.stg[3] + p.delay[4]) * 0.5
            p.delay[4] = p.stg[3]
            p.j = p.j + 1
        end
        p.out[p.i] = p.delay[5]
        p.i = p.i + 1
    end
    return 0
end
}}

/*
Moogladder - An improved implementation of the Moog ladder filter

DESCRIPTION
This is an new digital implementation of the Moog ladder filter based on the work of Antti Huovilainen,
described in the paper \"Non-Linear Digital Implementation of the Moog Ladder Filter\" (Proceedings of DaFX04, Univ of Napoli).
This implementation is probably a more accurate digital representation of the original analogue filter.
This is version 2 (revised 14/DEC/04), with improved amplitude/resonance scaling and frequency correction using a couple of polynomials,as suggested by Antti.

SYNTAX
ar  Moogladder  asig, kcf, kres

PERFORMANCE
asig - input signal
kcf - cutoff frequency (Hz)
kres - resonance (0 - 1).

CREDITS
Victor Lazzarini
*/

                    opcode  moogladderu, a, akk
asig, kcf, kres     xin
                    setksmps    1
ipi                 =           4 * taninv(1)
/* filter delays */
az1                 init        0
az2                 init        0
az3                 init        0
az4                 init        0
az5                 init        0
ay4                 init        0
amf                 init        0
                    if          kres > 1 then
kres                =           1
                    elseif      kres < 0 then
kres                =           0
                    endif
/* twice the \'thermal voltage of a transistor\' */
i2v                 =           40000
/* sr is half the actual filter sampling rate  */
kfc                 =           kcf/sr
kf                  =           kcf/(sr*2)
/* frequency & amplitude correction  */
kfcr                =           1.8730 * (kfc^3) + 0.4955 * (kfc^2) - 0.6490 * kfc + 0.9988
kacr                =           -3.9364 * (kfc^2) + 1.8409 * kfc + 0.9968;
/* filter tuning  */
k2vg                =           i2v * (1 - exp(-2 * ipi * kfcr * kf))
/* cascade of 4 1st order sections         */
ay1                 =           az1 + k2vg * (tanh((asig - 4 * kres * amf * kacr) / i2v) - tanh(az1 / i2v))
az1                 =           ay1
ay2                 =           az2 + k2vg * (tanh(ay1 / i2v) - tanh(az2 / i2v ))
az2                 =           ay2
ay3                 =           az3 + k2vg * (tanh(ay2 / i2v) - tanh(az3 / i2v))
az3                 =           ay3
ay4                 =           az4 + k2vg * (tanh(ay3 / i2v) - tanh(az4 / i2v))
az4                 =           ay4
/* 1/2-sample delay for phase compensation  */
amf                 =           (ay4 + az5) *0.5
az5                 =           ay4
/* oversampling  */
ay1                 =           az1 + k2vg * (tanh((asig - 4 * kres * amf * kacr) / i2v) - tanh(az1 / i2v))
az1                 =           ay1
ay2                 =           az2 + k2vg * (tanh(ay1 / i2v) - tanh(az2 / i2v ))
az2                 =           ay2
ay3                 =           az3 + k2vg * (tanh(ay2 / i2v) - tanh(az3 / i2v))
az3                 =           ay3
ay4                 =           az4 + k2vg * (tanh(ay3 / i2v) - tanh(az4 / i2v))
az4                 =           ay4
amf                 =           (ay4 + az5) * 0.5
az5                 =           ay4
                    xout        amf
                    endop

instr 1
                prints      "No filter.\n"
	kfe         expseg      500, p3*0.9, 1800, p3*0.1, 3000
    kenv        linen       10000, 0.05, p3, 0.05
    asig        buzz        kenv, 100, sr/(200), 1
    ; afil      moogladder  asig, kfe, 1
                out         asig
endin

instr 2
                prints      "Native moogladder.\n"
	kfe         expseg      500, p3*0.9, 1800, p3*0.1, 3000
    kenv        linen       10000, 0.05, p3, 0.05
    asig        buzz        kenv, 100, sr/(200), 1
    afil        moogladder  asig, kfe, 1
                out         afil
endin

instr 3
                prints      "UDO moogladder.\n"
	kfe         expseg      500, p3*0.9, 1800, p3*0.1, 3000
    kenv        linen       10000, 0.05, p3, 0.05
    asig        buzz        kenv, 100, sr/(200), 1
    afil        moogladderu asig, kfe, 1
                out         afil
endin

instr 4
                prints      "Lua moogladder.\n"
    kres        init        1
    istor       init        0
	kfe         expseg      500, p3*0.9, 1800, p3*0.1, 3000
    kenv        linen       10000, 0.05, p3, 0.05
    asig        buzz        kenv, 100, sr/(200), 1
    afil        init        0
                lua_ikopcall    "moogladder", afil, asig, kfe, kres, istor
                out         afil
endin

instr 5
    giended     rtclock
    ielapsed    =           giended - gibegan
                print       ielapsed
    gibegan     rtclock
endin

</CsInstruments>
<CsScore>
f 1     0 65536 10 1
i 5.1   0   1
i 4     1   20
i 5.2   21  1
i 4     22  20
i 5.3   42  1
i 2     43  20
i 5.4   63  1
i 2     64  20
i 5.5   84  1
i 3     85  20
i 5.6   105 1
i 3     106 20
i 5.7   126 1
i 1     127 20
i 5.8   147 1
i 1     148 20
i 5.9   168 1
i 4     169 20
i 4     170 20
i 4     171 20
e
</CsScore>
</CsoundSynthesizer>


See Also

lua_exec, lua_opcall.

Credits

By: Michael Gogins 2011

New in Csound version 5.13.2