Copyright Notice

This version of the Csound Manual ("The Canonical Csound Manual") is released under the GNU Free Documentation Licence. Below are listed, for historical purposes, previous copyrights and requests for credit from previous authors.

Previous copyright notices

Copyright (c) 1986, 1992 by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. All rights reserved.

Developed by Barry L. Vercoe at the Experimental Music Studio, Media Laboratory, M.I.T., Cambridge, Massachusetts, with partial support from the System Development Foundation and from National Science Foundation Grant # IRI-8704665.


Copyright (c) 2003 by Kevin Conder for modifications made to the Public Csound Reference Manual.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of this license is available in the examples sub-directory or at:

This Csound language documentation in this manual is derived from Kevin Conder's Alternative Csound Reference Manual, which in turn is derived from the Public Csound Reference Manual.

Copyright 2004-2005 by Michael Gogins for modifications made to the Alternative Csound Reference Manual.

This legal notice is from the Public Csound Reference Manual: The original Hypertext Edition of the MIT Csound Manual was prepared for the World Wide Web by Peter J. Nix of the Department of Music at the University of Leeds and Jean Piché of the Faculté de musique de l'Université de Montréal. A Print Edition, in Adobe Acrobat format, was then maintained by David M. Boothe. The editors fully acknowledge the rights of the authors of the original documentation and programs, as set out above, and further request that this notice appear wherever this material is held.

The Public Csound Reference Manual's last known network location was

The Alternative Csound Reference Manual's network location, for both the Transparent and Opaque copies, is

The Csound and CsoundAC Manual's network location is

Csound and CsoundAC

Csound is copyright 1991-2008 by Barry Vercoe, John ffitch and others.

CsoundAC is copyright 2001-2008 by Michael Gogins.

Csound and CsoundAC (formerly CsoundVST) are free software; you can redistribute them and/or modify them under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

Csound and CsoundAC are distributed in the hope that they will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License along with Csound and CsoundAC; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA.

Virtual Synthesis Technology

Virtual Synthesis Technology (VST) PlugIn interface technology by Steinberg Soft- und Hardware GmbH.